Concussion Physiology

Concussions present with a wide array of impairments, most whose cause are still unknown. Understanding the physiology of concussion may help improve our understanding of these non-specific impairments, and may help us develop new treatments for concussion.

Leddy JJ, Kozlowski KF, Fung M, Pendergast DR and Willer B. Regulatory and Autoregulatory Physiological Dysfunction as a Primary Characteristic of Post Concussion Syndrome: Implications for Treatment. Neurorehabilitation 22:199-205, 2007.


Leddy JJ, Cox JL, Baker JG, Wack DS, Pendergast DR, Zivadinov R, and Willer B. Exercise Treatment for Post Concussion Syndrome: A Pilot Study of Changes in fMRI Activation, Physiology and Symptoms. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 28:241-249, 2013.


Polak P, Leddy JJ, Dwyer MG, Willer B and Zivadinov R. Diffusion Tensor Imaging Alterations in Post-Concussion Syndrome Patients Undergoing Exercise Treatment: A Pilot Longitudinal Study. J Head Trauma Rehabil (2014 Apr 9. [Epub ahead of print]). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24721808


Clausen M, Pendergast DR, Willer B, and Leddy JJ. Cerebral Blood Flow during Treadmill Exercise is a Marker of Physiological Post-Concussion Syndrome in Female Athletes. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 31(3):215-24, 2016.


Hinds A, Leddy J, Freitas M, and Willer B. Heart Rate in Response to Exertion after ConcussionJ Neurol Neurophysiol 2016, 7:4.


Leddy J, Baker JG, Haider N, Hinds A, and Willer B. A Physiological Approach to Prolonged Recovery from Sport-related Concussion. Journal of Athletic Training Vol. 52, No. 3 (March 2017) pp. 299-308.


Kamins J, Bigler ED, Covassin T, Henry L, Kemp S, Leddy JJ, Mayer A, McCrea M, Prins M, Schneider K, Valovich McLeod T, Zemek R, and Giza CC. What is the Physiological Time to Recovery after Concussion? Br J Sports Med. 2017 Jun;51(12):935-940. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2016-097464. Epub 2017 Apr 28.


Mayer, A.R., Wertz, C., Ryman, S.G., Storey, E.P., Park, G., Phillips, J., Dodd, A.B., Oglesbee, S., Campbell, R., Yeo, R.A., Wasserott, B., Shaff, N. A., Leddy, J.J., Mannix, R., Arbogast, K.B., Meier, T.B., Grady, M.F., Master, C.L. Neurosensory deficits vary as a function of point of care in pediatric mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurotrauma 35(10): 1178-1184. 2018.


Haider, M. N., Leddy, J. J., Hinds, A. L., Aronoff, N., Rein, D., Poulsen, D., & Willer, B. S. (2018). Intracranial pressure changes after mild traumatic brain injury: a systematic review. Brain injury, 32(7), 809-815.


Johnson BD, O’Leary MC, McBryde M, Sackett JR, Schlader ZJ, Leddy JJ. Face cooling exposes cardiac parasympathetic and sympathetic dysfunction in recently concussed college athletes. Physiol Rep. 2018;6(9):e13694. Epub 2018/05/10. doi: 10.14814/phy2.13694. PubMed PMID: 29741235; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC5941219.


Mayer, A.R., Kaushal, M., Dodd, A.B., Hanlon, F.M., Shaff, N.A., Mannix, R., Master, C.L., Leddy, J.J., Stephenson, D., Wertz, C.J., Suelzer, E.M., Arbogast, K.B., & Meier, T.B. (2018). Advanced biomarkers of pediatric mild traumatic brain injury: Progress and perils. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 94, 149-165.


Johnson BD, Sackett JR, Schlader ZJ, Leddy JJ. Attenuated Cardiovascular Responses to the Cold Pressor Test in Concussed Collegiate Athletes. J Athl Train. 2020 Feb;55(2):124-131. doi: 10.4085/1062-6050-573-18. Epub 2020 Jan 7. PubMed PMID: 31909640; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC7017893.


Baker JG, Willer B; Dwyer MG, and Leddy J. A Preliminary Investigation of Cognitive Intolerance and Neuroimaging among Adolescents Returning to School after Concussion. Brain Injury.


Leddy JJ, Fisher NM, and Pendergast DR. Metabolic responses to multiple bouts of supra-maximal exercise in trained and untrained subjects. International Sports Medicine Journal 5:155-168, 2004.


Lo Bue-Estes C, Willer B, Burton H, Leddy JJ and Horvath PJ. Effect of short-term exercise to exhaustion on cognitive function in women. Perceptual and Motor Skills 107:933-945, 2008.