The Aging Athlete

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy is a concern for retired contact sport athletes. The Healthy Aging Mind was conducted from 2013 to 2018 to help understand the severity of impairments in elderly retired professional contact-sport athletes and found most did not have Traumatic Encephalopathy Syndrome. However, multiple other causes for decreased satisfaction with life were found.

Haider MN, O’Donnell K, Bezherano I, Horvath PJ, Leddy JJ, Willer BS. Retired Professional Contact Sport Athletes are more sedentary and consume fewer brain healthy nutrients than Non-contact Sport Controls. JSM Sports Medicine and Research 2019.


Antonius D, Matthew N, Picano J, Cogswell A, Olympia J, Brooks T, DiGiacomo M, Baker JG, Willer B, and Leddy JJ. Behavioral Health Symptoms Associated with Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: A Critical Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Treatment and Research. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 26(4):313–322, 2014.


Willer BS, Tiso M, Haider MN, Hinds AL, Baker JG, Miecznikowski JC and Leddy JJ. Evaluation of Executive Function and Mental Health in Retired Contact Sport Athletes. JHTR DOI: 10.1097/HTR.000000000000042. 2018.


Zivadinov R, Polak P, Schweser F, Bergsland N, Hagemeier J, Dwyer MG, Ramasamay DP, Baker JG, Leddy JJ, and Willer BS. Multimodal imaging of retired professional contact sport athletes does not provide evidence of structural and functional brain damage. JHTR DOI: 10.1097/HTR.0000000000000422. 2018.


Baker JG, Leddy JJ, Hinds AL, Haider MN, Shucard J, Sharma T, Miecznikowski JC, Hernandez S, Durinka J, Zivadinov R, and Willer BS. An Exploratory Study of Mild Cognitive Impairment of Retired Professional Contact Sport Athletes. JHTR DOI: 10.1097/HTR.0000000000000420.2018.


Willer BS, Zivadinov R, Haider MN, Miecznikowski JC, and Leddy JJ. A Preliminary Study of Early Onset Dementia of Former Professional Football and Hockey Players. JHTR DOI: 10.1097/HTR.0000000000000421 2018.